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CIOB Level 3 Diploma
CIOB Level 4 Certificate


Unit 4 Managing Health, Safety, Welfare & Risk Control within a Construction Site 




4.1 Safety Obligations

4.2 Manage Project HSW Information

4.3 Maintain HSW on Site






Information and Guidance is available from the ‘Student Area’.




Health and Safety Abbreviations

ACOP - Approved Code of Practice

CDM - Construction Design and Management

CP - Codes of Practice

HSG - Health & Safety Guidance

HSW - Health and Safety at Work

HSWE – Health, Safety, Welfare and Environmental

H&S – Health & Safety

INDG - Industry Guidance

PPE – Personal Protective Equipment

RIDDOR – Reporting of Injuries, Disease & Dangerous Occurrences Regulations

TBT - Toolbox Talk


Learning outcome:  On completion the learner will know how to maintain Health, Safety and Welfare on site.


An assignment is being used for this Unit.


Details on how to produce the assignment is included on the form, which you should down-load from the column on the left by clicking on "Assignment for Unit 4" and from the “Submitting Assignment” Page from the “Student Area”.






4.3.1 Managing of Health, Safety and Welfare

4.3.2 Dealing with Incidents

4.3.3 Inducting and Training



Hughes P & Ferrett E, (2009) Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction (3rd Ed), Butterworth-Heinemann; Oxford, Chapter 21 ‘Summary of the main legal requirements’.



4.3.1 Management of Health and Safety

Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 place a duty on employers to carry out suitable and sufficient health and safety risk assessments that cover both employees and others who may be affected by their undertakings. Specific risk assessments are required by at least 11 other regulations including Control of Asbestos, Noise at Work, Manual Handling, PPE, COSHH and Confined Space Regulations.


Review of Working Methods

The review of working methods is an on-going process in order to ensure that they comply with best HSW practice and that all systems relating to health, safety and environmental protection are being followed by all workers. This will be done by observation and by the use of check lists and registers, as not only have you to carry out the checks and ensure conformance but you must also show that you have carried them out.

This involves looking at the way the work is being done in order to confirm that it relates to the method statement and that this method is still relevant. It also involves ensuring that personnel are trained appropriately and that all safety systems are in place and that personnel are trained in the emergency drills appropriate to the work activity.


Emergency Drills

The purpose of emergency procedures is to deal with serious or imminent danger and thereby limit the damage to people and property. Under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 emergency procedures must be established with particular regard to first aid, emergency medical care and rescue. The procedures are intended to address foreseeable emergencies and evacuation. They should take account of the type of work being undertaken and the associated equipment, the nature of the site and the numbers of people engaged and any additional dangers arising from the materials or processes in use.

Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007, which replaced the Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996, require all people to be familiar with the emergency procedures and for those procedures to be periodically tested. Similarly any fire fighting or fire detection equipment shall be examined and tested at suitable intervals. Provision should be made for a sufficient number of emergency routes and exits to enable all people to quickly reach a place of safety.


Health, Safety, Welfare and Environmental Equipment and Resources

Requirements are laid down with regard to specific working. These relate to the protection that must be provided generally and in relation to specific types or areas of work, examples of these are shown below.



  • Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 (PPE 1992) set out basic duties for the provision of all equipment (including clothing affording protection against the weather) which is intended to be worn or held to protect against one or more risks. Regulations requiring specific protection (for example the Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989 or the Noise at Work Regulations 2005) take precedence over the requirements under PPE 1992. The suitability of any equipment must be determined by assessing the risks and its provision must be accompanied by adequate information, instruction and training.
  • Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 require a safe system of work to be in place, which may form the basis of a permit-to-work that will include the provision of PPE, RPE (Respiratory Protective Equipment), gas supply equipment, access, lighting, rescue and resuscitation equipment.
  • Work at Height Regulations 2005 require the provision of suitable and sufficient equipment providing protection or temporary support that prevent falls of people or materials. Such equipment can include guard rail, toe-boards, barriers, scaffolds, working platforms, ladders, fall arrest and work restraint systems.
  • Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 describe the requirements for a safe and secure site and the facilities suitable for proper site welfare. Accordingly the site plans must include the provision of safe means of access/egress, temporary supports, hoarding, signs, barriers as well as sanitary conveniences and equipment associated with washing facilities, drinking water, changing and rest facilities.
  • Protection of the environment and safeguarding the health of employees and others who may be affected is generally provided under the:


    • Environmental Protection Act 1990
    • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002
    • Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002,
    • Noise at Work Regulations 2005
    • Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006

They require the introduction of control measures effecting protection or prevention and can include the need for equipment to measure and monitor exposure.


Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992, as amended 2002, define PPE as all equipment that is worn or held by a person at work to protect them from one or more risks to their health or safety. Its provision is free of charge under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 which also makes it an offence to detrimentally interfere with the equipment. PPE is the last choice in the principles of prevention and will not be suitable unless:



  • It is appropriate for the identified risks
  • It takes account of the ergonomics requirements and health of the wearer
  • It fits the wearer or can be adjusted to fit properly
  • It complies with UK legislation on design/manufacture (ie contains CE marking)
  • It does not increase the overall level of risk




Before selecting and providing PPE an employer must make an assessment to determine if the equipment is suitable. This will include an assessment of the risks, the characteristics needed to combat the risks and any issues of compatibility with PPE being worn simultaneously. An employer is also required to provide suitable information, instruction and training which will include an explanation of the risks and why PPE is required, the problems that may affect the equipment, how to recognise defects and suitable practice in its fitting and use.

The provision of PPE is also a requirement of specific legislation, for example COSHH, Noise and Construction Head Protection regulations and in such circumstances the requirements of the specific legislation should prevail. Organisations may choose to implement standards over and above those defined by legislation, for example the compulsory wearing of hard hats at all times, and if this course of action is taken then all must be made aware of the enhanced standards. Site inductions and site rules would be typical means of reference suitably reinforced by signs and notices.


Welfare Facilities

Welfare facilities are provided to maintain the health and well-being of people at work and include washing and sanitation arrangements, the provision of drinking water, heating, lighting and accommodation for clothing, seating and eating. Rest rooms and first aid arrangements are also included.

Welfare facilities are covered by Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 and Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992, as amended 2002. Specific details on their provision are given in the Approved Code of Practice that accompanies each of the regulations and the official health and safety guidance HSG 150. Welfare for transient sites, ie where construction work is of short duration (up to 1 week), will be different to those for fixed sites.


First Aid Facilities

Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981, amended 2002, set out an employer’s duties to provide adequate first-aid facilities. First Aid is intended to provide treatment that will reduce the effects of injury or illness at work and the requirements will take account of the nature of the work, the numbers of people employed, site conditions and the severity of the specific hazards. First Aid requirements will include facilities and equipment, qualified first-aiders and appointed persons, arrangements for training (including refresher training) and information to advise employees and others on site of the facilities and arrangements. The HSE produces ‘Basic Advice on First Aid at Work’ which can be used to supplement effective training in the emergency treatment of casualties.

The purpose of First Aid facilities is to preserve life and reduce the effects of injury or illness at work whether or not it was caused at work. They will also be used to provide treatment to minor injuries that otherwise would not receive treatment or do not need treatment by a medical practitioner. The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 (which are currently under review), set out requirements on the arrangements to be made for first aid in the workplace. These include the provision of facilities (i.e. first aid box, treatment room etc), the provision of trained personnel (i.e. First Aider Appointed Person) and the provision of information and training.

The actual provision for First Aid on site will be determined by risk assessment carried out in accordance with Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 or Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988, as amended 2002. The risk assessment will consider the numbers of people engaged on site, the types of activities being undertaken and the potential dangers to health and well-being presented by site hazards.


Security & Storage Equipment

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 places a duty on an employer to ensure the safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage and transport of substances and articles. It also requires an employer to maintain any place of work in a condition that is safe and without risks to the health of all workers and others who may be affected by their undertakings. Therefore when having to determine the security and storage equipment for a site or premises it is essential to assess who may be harmed and in what way. Such consideration should extend to all workers, staff and visitors as well as people using or sharing the site, neighbours and unauthorised intruders.

Security equipment is intended to protect people and property and Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 extends the above duty by requiring every place of work to be made and kept safe and for steps to be taken to prevent access by any person to any place that is not safe. Specifically the regulations require site perimeters to be fenced off and suitably signed. They also require excavations to be guarded and measures to be taken to prevent vehicles falling into excavations, into water or over embankments. The regulations also contain specific requirements on the safe and secure use, storage and transportation of explosives. The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998, as amended 2002, requires measures to prevent access to dangerous parts of machinery as well as measures to prevent the unauthorised starting of self-propelled work equipment.

Specific security equipment may be installed to prevent access by intruders or indeed violence from intruders. Such equipment could include barriers (with swipe cards) or security locks and passes. CCTV systems and alarms can deter intrusion and threats but their installation will be risk assessment based. The increased vulnerability of lone workers or those working in remote locations may be addressed by the provision of radios, pagers, mobile phones or tracking devices. All such issues are only one aspect of the array of risk reduction measures determined by a suitable and sufficient risk assessment.

Storage equipment is determined by the materials and equipment to be stored, the manufacturer’s instructions and the specific regulations that govern their provision and use. For example COSHH Regulations 2002 stipulate that control measures to minimise exposure must include safe handling, storage and transport. The duty of care arising from the Environmental Protection Act 1990 includes a requirement to ensure the safe storage and, when appropriate, isolation of waste. Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992, as amended 2002, requires appropriate accommodation to provide storage for PPE that will prevent its contamination or deterioration.

Specific storage equipment may include storage bays for aggregates and include ventilated, waterproof temporary buildings for dry materials. Storage facilities may be required to maintain a constant temperature whilst tarpaulins may be sufficient if the need is just to prevent contamination and water impregnation. Lockable cages in the open air will be required for the storage of liquid petroleum gas whilst highly flammable materials may require a concrete or brick building suitably signed and ventilated. ‘Highly Desirables’, such as ironwork, lead, copper, building accessories etc, will always require secure, safe storage.


Health, Safety, Welfare and Environmental Records


Construction projects and construction-related operations call for the keeping of an extensive array of records and examples of these are outlined below. The list is intended as an example of a typical site requirement but is in no way exhaustive or comprehensive. Statutory requirements are detailed in appropriate safety regulations and explained further in accompanying Codes of Practice or official Health & Safety Guidance. These relate to: 



  • People:
    • Timesheets, certificates of sickness, health surveillance
    • Licences, qualifications, training (including refresher), competence certificates
    • Inductions, Tool Box Talks (TBT), safety & risk assessment briefings, emergency drills, PPE issues



  • H&S Requirements:
    • Safety Policy (signed), risk assessment reviews
    • Project notification (CDM), Construction Phase Plan, records for H&S File
    • RIDDOR records (F2508, F2508A), incident investigations, near miss reports


  • Environmental Requirements:
    • Waste Management licence, waste transfer notes, waste permit


  • Plant:
    • Operating records, inspections, examinations, tests, report of findings
    • Defect reports, repairs, alterations



  • Equipment:
    • PAT (electrical equipment including Display Screen Equipment), statutory examinations (Lifting)
    • Work equipment inspections
    • Fire fighting equipment inspections and testing
    • Equipment for controlling hazardous substances (inspections)



  • Operations:
    • Inspections of excavations, scaffolding, temporary works
    • Permits to Work (hot work, digging, lifting, confined space etc)



  • Materials:
    • Asbestos (licence, notification, testing)







Task 4.3.1 Activities Flow Chart / Management Plan

a. Produce a flow diagram / procedural chart to show and describe the activities involved in the maintenance, inspection and feedback of Health and Safety legislation on site.

Word Guide:  200 - 300 plus chart

b. Produce a Management Plan for the Health, Safety & Welfare for a project.

Word Guide:  300 - 400




4.3.2 Dealing with Incidents


Accident Reporting Systems

Incidents and accidents, whether they cause damage to property or injury and ill-health, should be thoroughly investigated to determine actions that will prevent recurrence and encourage a continuous improvement in safety performance. The investigations may also enable an employer to demonstrate compliance with legal requirements, to review and update safety arrangements and to make a full disclosure of the circumstances of an accident in compliance with the Woolf Report on civil action.

All accidents and incidents should be investigated though the effort spent on the investigation will be determined by the level of risk it presents; severity of harm and frequency of occurrence. It is therefore essential that all accidents and incidents are reported in accordance with company procedure and their circumstances are recorded appropriately.

Certain more serious accidents and incidents must be reported to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or other enforcing authority (eg. Environmental Health, Environment Agency, Fire and Rescue Authority etc.). In general terms local authorities are responsible for retailing, warehousing, offices, hotels, catering, sports, leisure and places of worship leaving HSE responsible for all other places of work. There is a centralized national system called the Incident Contact Centre (ICC) to which all incidents are reported directly.


Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 require the reporting of specified accidents, ill-health and dangerous occurrences to the relevant enforcing authorities. The events to be reported include death, major injury and accidents that result in absences over 3 days. The regulations specify the types of ill-health cases to be reported as well as giving descriptions of the events considered dangerous occurrences. The details of what is to be reported can be checked by consulting the RIDDOR guide, completing all sections of the standard report form or by referring to the HSE website.


Task 4.3.2 Dealing with Breaches

Explain the processes to deal with breaches of Health, Safety & Welfare requirements.

Word Guide:  200 - 300



3.2.3 Site Inductions and Training


All personnel working on or visiting a site must undergo an induction to ensure they are familiar with aspects of health and safety.  The contents of a health and safety induction will depend on the nature of the site, its operations and the people engaged. Typical topics and the information covered include:


Health, safety, welfare & environmental responsibilities:



  • Health and safety policy, organization chart and delegated responsibilities
  • Senior management commitment to health and safety, project requirements
  • Environmental policy, project criteria and waste management
  • Consultation arrangements and any formal Communications Cascade
  • Procedure for reporting accidents and incidents




HSWE plans:


  • Construction Phase Health & Safety Plan
  • Demolition Plan, plans for dealing with hazardous materials
  • Waste Management Plan, plans for hazardous waste removal



HSWE facilities, equipment & resources:





  • Welfare facilities (sanitary conveniences, washing facilities, drinking water)
  • Facilities for food preparation and eating
  • Facilities for changing, rest and storage of PPE
  • Safety equipment (rescue, safe lifting, specialist PPE, access equipment)



First Aid arrangements:



  • First Aiders, Appointed Persons, Basic Advice (emergencies)
  • First Aid facilities (First Aid kit provision and location, treatment room)



Risk Control Procedures:



  • Project outline, site-specific hazards, site-specific hazardous operations
  • Site rules (including smoking, Drugs & Alcohol), traffic routes, security arrangements
  • Summary of relevant risk assessments, method statements, SSOW
  • Works requiring permits, hearing protection zones, PPE arrangements
  • Manual handling procedures, materials storage procedures
  • Planned training including Tool Box Talks (TBT)







Emergency Drills:



  • Fire precautions, Responsible Persons, use of fire fighting equipment
  • Raising the alarm, escape routes, assembly points, site evacuation


HSWE Training

Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 requires employers to provide such information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to ensure the health and safety at work of his employees. 


Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 and other regulations specify the legal requirements with regard to the provision of that training. This provision can relate to the acquisition of basic skills, recognised competence or specialist skills associated with work equipment, plant, materials, systems of work, higher risk activities or emergency procedures. It may also be provided to address the introduction of new responsibilities, new technology, new systems or equipment, changing circumstances or new employees.

Training is required to ensure the environment is properly and effectively protected. Specifically it involves training in processes that prevent construction activities from polluting the air, water and land by effectively managing noise, dust, vibration, spillages and waste. Training can be categorised as:



  • Induction training (including a 3 month follow up with new employees)
  • Job-specific training (including TBTs, risk assessment results and accident investigation findings)
  • Specialist training
  • Supervisory and management training (including legal requirements, accident prevention, monitoring H&S performance and changes in the law)




Training is also about encouraging an appropriate health and safety culture that promotes standards that minimise health and safety risks. This requires commitment and clear leadership by management, requires employees to be appropriately trained and competent and requires attendance at all additional site related and specialist training. This requirement extends to training in fire drills and emergency evacuations as well as the proper reporting and investigation of accidents and incidents.

An excellent way of providing training is by tool box talks relating to the different aspects of the work. By ensuring that operatives sign an attendance sheet they also provide confirmation that the training has been provided and encourage a culture of good HSW practice on site.



Task 4.3.3 Site Induction

Produce a site induction for subcontractors detailing their responsibilities under statutory legislation.

Word Guide:  400 - 600





Additional Information

If you would like additional information you can visit the constructionsite unit listed below.






Unit Complete

You have now completed Unit 4. So you should complete your assignment and send it to 

When submitting your assignment you should ensure that it meets all the requirements set out on the Submitting Assignments page, which is accessible from the Student Area.

You will be notified as soon as this has been assessed and will then be advised as to your next unit.









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